Paul Revere

Paul Revere’s Ride by David Hackett Fischer, published by Oxford University Press, © B Paul Revere1994.

American grade schoolers are taught, are told, that Paul Revere, in the cold, wee hours of 19 April 1775, galloped fiercely through the countryside west of Boston, taking the back roads connecting the small hamlets of Lexington and Concord, yelling at the top of his lungs, “The British are coming”; a story that has passed down through the generations since the Revolutionary War. Dramatic in the telling, yes, correct, not so much. The truth of what happened that night is no less dramatic, extraordinarily dramatic in fact, considering that the American rebels went up against the greatest army and navy on the planet during the latter half of the 18th century, and triumphed.

Warning the Boston countryside of the imminent arrival of British Regulars was not a spontaneous reaction, by the patriot Paul Revere, but a well planned counteraction, with the main details worked out well in advance of the Redcoats march towards Lexington and Concord. Alerted by a Boston stable boy, who revealed that the British officers, in the late afternoon of 18 April 1775, were preparing their horses for a march; the pre-arranged lamp signal, one if by land, two if by sea,  was lit in the tall steeple of Christ Church, tipping-off the rebels that the British were going to take the shorter water route to Concord. This set off a cascading series of events that put into motion upwards to sixty patriots charging through the Boston countryside, alerting and assembling the Minuteman army, warning John Hancock and John Adams of their imminent arrest and hiding rebel assets.

The years preceding the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776 saw a significant percentage of self-government seeking colonists locked in a high stakes match of wills with King George III and the British, specifically, the Massachusetts headquartered, Lieutenant-General Thomas Gage, chief of British forces in America and as such the most powerful man in the colonies: General Gage, likely understanding the game being played, resisted brandishing the sword to the very end, when events spiraled out of his control forever in the spring of 1775.

The independence minded colonists, the Whigs, mainly operating from the greater Boston area, resisting the British rule at every turn, prodding them to be the first to use excessive violence against the colonists, to draw enough blood and take sufficient lives that it would light the fuse of war.  The Boston Massacre of 5 March 1970 almost lit that fuse, but the Whigs were not ready for war, they lacked organization, men, materials and most important of all, a plurality of support from the population.  John Hancock, Sam Adams and Paul Revere tamped down the populace’s anger after this event, dampened the fuse of war to await a more felicitous time and place: Concord and Lexington, 19 April 1775.

David Hackett Fischer, currently University Professor and Earl Warren Professor of History at Brandeis University, has written a meticulously researched account of the days leading up to the battles of Concord and Lexington, and the subsequent battle for the hearts and minds of the colonists and British alike; delving into American and British military depositions, pension applications, claims of damages, Thomas Gage, Paul Revere, and other participants’ personal papers, American and British government documents, newspapers, terrain studies, Boston association members, local histories, histories of histories, family trees, weather, tides, phases of the moon; a seemingly inexhaustible list of sources that the author combines into an enjoyable, detailed narrative, in places a bit slow, but always interesting, of the early spring days of 1775 that laid the foundation for the United States of America.

On the Edge

The Winter Soldiers by Richard M. Ketchum, published by Doubleday, © B Winter Solder1973.

The short, bitterly cold, beginning days of December 1776 were precarious and demoralizing times for the American rebel army.  The heady days of victory over the British at Concord and Lexington by an improvised and ragtag American militia, were all but forgotten with the landing of 30,000 British and Hessian troops, 10,000 British sailors aboard 300 supply ships and 30 battleships, into the New York during the month of July 1776, necessitating General George Washington and his army to retreat to White Plains, quickly followed by successive calamities: defeats at Fort Washington and Fort Lee, the duplicity of General Lee, and further retreats towards Philadelphia; draining the spirit and potential from the nascent revolution; with the civilian militia counting down their days of enlistment, forewarning the ghosting of the army to a mere shadow of itself on New Years day 1777.

Ketchum’s The Winter Soldiers chronicles these early days of the American Revolution, revolving around maddening prospects of the rebel’s embryonic cause and fight, his narrative mirroring and illustrating the first two sentences in Thomas Paine’s, The American Crises (Number 1) pamphlet; read to George Washington’s troops on 23 December 1776, days before the Battles of Trenton and Princeton:

These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value. Heaven knows how to put a proper price upon its goods; and it would be strange indeed if so celestial an article as freedom should not be highly rated. Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, has declared that she has a right (not only to tax) but “to bind us in all cases whatsoever” and if being bound in that manner, is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth. Even the expression is impious; for so unlimited a power can belong only to God…

Ketchum’s story is the history of early events in the American Revolutionary War, a history of its armies, a history of its actions and reactions, a history of its participants: George III, General Howe, Admiral Howe, General Washington, Nathanael Greene, Henry Knox, Charles Lee, winners, losers, ambitious men, gentlemen, moral men and scoundrels, above all, a story of grit, guts and gall.

Mans Origins

Vertebrate Palaeontology 4th Edition by Michael Benton; published by Wiley Blackwell Vertebrate PaleontologyPublishers copyright © 2015.

Tracing our ancestry back in time is a popular pastime for a significant fraction of the population. Usually this involves investigating our direct descendants and nationalities and staying within the boundaries of a few generations of our species. Professor Benton takes our genealogy a tad further to the beginning of the Cambrian some half billion plus years ago and carries it to the present. Along the way we run into the rather unsettling ancestral tidbit that one of our giga-times great grandparents was an elongated, bulbous slug like organism in the subphylum Urochordata with a general name of sea squirt. Imagining that we evolved from one-celled organisms is conceivable and possibly non-repugnant, but making a stop along the way as a sea squirt just defies all conventions and manners of civilized evolutionary behavior. Laughing at us or with us seems a distinction worth exploring.

Another stop along the evolutionary highway was the once puzzling case of the ubiquitous conodonts. Into the later part of the 20th century, conodonts, mainly teeth like elements, were especially useful index fossils from the Cambrian until they disappeared from the record at the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event boundary, but no one knew what they were; what family the species belonged to or what they looked like. In the 1983 the mystery was solved with the discovery of eel like soft body imprints from Early Carboniferous rocks around Edinburgh, Scotland with additional, later discoveries coming from Wisconsin, USA and South Africa, which placed them firmly in the subphylum Vertebrata. Discovering that you were a fish in your past life is certainly an improvement over a lumpy sea squirt.

This book provides an exhaustive review of every major group of living and fossil vertebrates. The primary audience for this work is graduate students in geology and biology but even a layman, such as myself, will find this text not only highly readable and enlightening but immensely enjoyable. An appendix gives a cladistic scheme of all living and fossil vertebrates; Professor Benton refers to it as a conservative cladistic scheme, which adds an exclamation point to the books voyage through the tree of life.

Dr. Michael Benton is a British palaeontologist and professor in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol.  He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge in 2014.

On the Edge of Lake Superior

51J35ZHFQML._AC_US475_QL65_The Duluth Portfolio by Craig and Nadine Blacklock; published by Pfeifer-Hamilton © 1995.

Duluth Minnesota, situated on the northwestern edge of Lake Superior, was the largest port in the United States, by tonnage, in the early part of the 20th century due to the shipment of iron ore from the iron mines west of the lake through the city port to the smelting plants in Illinois and Ohio.  The city boomed during the first half of century not only because of iron but also the shipment of grain coming in from Midwest’s breadbasket and the build up of steel related industries in Duluth.  The city’s population and industry peaked in the 1950s when the availability of high grade ore from the Iron Range declined and overseas competition crippled US steel production. In an attempt to combat the downward economic spiral the city focused on tourism to sustain its economy by emphasizing the natural beauty at the edge of Lake Superior.

Duluth sits on the rugged and steep hills of the Duluth Complex which are blanketed with thick forests, crossed with a confusing array of brooks and streams and accentuated with outcrops of timeless Pre-Cambrian igneous rocks. Nadine and Craig Blacklock have captured this natural beauty in a series of stunning color close-ups to never-ending panoramas of wood, water and rock. The woodlands, the streams and of coarse, Lake Superior are showcased through the changing seasons of light and color.  The stunning autumn beauty of the Bardon Peak Park forest on an overcast day to the virgin delight of the snow capped evergreens casting shadows at the Lester River on a cloudless winter’s day exhibit the beauty that is Duluth.

Human Nature Yesterday

The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land by Thomas Asbrid51c32nyzebl-_sx330_bo1204203200_ge; published by HarperCollins Publishers copyright © 2010.

In 1095 AD, the high middle ages, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus of Constantinople asked the Latin Pope Urban II for assistance in recovering parts of Asia Minor lost to the Seljuk Turks. The Pope responded, with less than altruistic motives towards his eastern Christian cousins, by embroiling western Europe and the Levant in 200 years of war which eventually became known as the Crusades.

Thomas Asbridge presents a compelling history of Christian struggles to seize control of the holy land from the Muslims, thus reviving the Islamic concept of jihad, while attempting to answer the questions of how these battles of conquest and religion reverberate through western history into our modern times.  Interesting enough Asbridge suggests that the crusades “belong in  the past” and inferences to todays apparent sequels are “misguided”.

This is a excellent and thoroughly researched march through the 11th and 12th centuries of western Europe and the Levant, bringing alive names of Richard the Lionheart and Saladin and others that Sir Walter Scott so richly romanticized in his historical 19th century novels, Ivanhoe and The Talisman.  The Crusades is a fast paced read with sufficient twists and turns in the narrative that you may suspect that this is a movie screenplay rather than a history.  This is a great read. Well worth your time.

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